how to become a novel translator

so 1.5 만 is 15,000 (in machine translator often translate as 1.5 million) (it's same for Chinese 萬 or Japanese 万 raw) Here an example on machine translate on Korean LMS light novel : How to become a successful translator Becoming a successful translator requires a lot of patience, skill and practice. Replaced by a machine. You have to distinguish yourself with talent first and foremost. It is a field on the rise, providing many opportunities to work with different types of people and to learn new things. I ended up attending Wellesley College in Massachusetts, partially because they offered a flexible Comparative Literature major which allowed me to study abroad, take language and literature classes, and pursue a few independent studies on the topic of my choice. When I graduated from Wellesley, I felt I had the language skills and literary chops to start translating professionally. Get good at the language you’re translating from. To give one example of novel translations, the following sentence is from a Japanese novel I am currently reading: “21日の土曜日は、朝から降り出した雨がそのまま夜まで … Many are authors first of all, for whom translation is a natural extension of their work. Get translation work experience so you can become better at your job. Additionally, look into taking advanced language, translation, and interpreting classes since this educational background will help you sell your skills to future employers. You might, for example, teach your own language in the foreign country while you work to enhance your knowledge of the language. Translating is like that but even more intimate. These range from undergraduate classes to PhDs in translation and everything in between. primarily on topics such as homeschooling, parenting, health, science, and business. If, on the other hand, you just want to work with literature, you may prefer a program which lets you spend more time working on independent translation projects and has a stronger theoretical focus. I would wager there are less than 100 full time professional literary translators around the world. I think it might make more sense for people to study a foreign language and do a creative writing degree, or just find a mentor outside academia, but knowing all the while you really can’t make a living from this. . I think it’s a really good time to be a literary translator into English, specially working in the UK or at least with UK publishers, but it varies. The Benefits. Take Test. With the growing popularity and visibility of global literature in the English-speaking world, on the other hand, has come increased visibility of literary translation as an art of its own. Secondly, GEDs and post-graduate degrees aside, many translators acquire some sort of certificate that attests to their translation skills. This will give you a chance to polish your communication skills and familiarize yourself with all of the aspects of the language. Although there are a lot of articles online about translation, we wanted to combine a great deal of information into one easy-to-follow guide with practical tips on how to become a freelance translator. Yet I have the feeling that people who do literary translation degrees are hoping to make it into an exclusive club that has so few members it can hardly even be considered a club. A degree won’t be the right answer for anyone, and I wouldn’t suggest taking on debt with the idea that you will pay it off by translating books, but it can be a very helpful and focused environment in which to refine a skill set! Get Paid! In order to become a book translator, you'll typically need to be fluent in reading and writing in your native tongue as well as at least one other language. This will help you to become a good translator. But hey, it’s obvious because it’s true. but don't know where to start? The more experienced, the more subjects that person will have tackled, such is the reality of a translator. – The JET program is an incredibly rewarding career. It is an amazing mental endeavor too. Literary translation doesn’t generally pay well, especially in English-speaking countries. A book translator takes a book in one language and translates it into another. The exam assesses the language skills of a professional translator: comprehension of the source-language text, translation techniques, and writing in the target language. Medical Translator: Job Duties, Salary and Requirements. Others are literary critics or academics, who translate to give a wider audience access to the works they study. You have to love reading in the genre(s) you're translating and be both intimate with the writer and the nuances of language, culture, thought, and message. But unlike my friends who wanted to be writers or performers, editors or scientists, I had no idea how to make that happen. Log in to our translation portal wherever and whenever to start translating. You will also need to complete a VET or university qualification. Sign up for free. my name is Karina,i have been always interested to become a translator.I can speak English and Portuguese at the moment.i am looking forward to learn Spanish.i would love to know how to get started.thanks. She has been a communications manager for Asymptote since 2017. Here's what you need to know. In my experience, the degree also lends legitimacy to your translator’s CV and will open doors early in your career, especially if you lack a significant portfolio of published translations. This is not a formal requirement, but it certainly helps in achieving the proficiency level needed for the job. Additionally, some experienced book translators recommend visiting the country from which the second language originates. A couple hundred? You can either teach English or, if you have the language skills, become a coordinator of international relations for the Japanese government. Many jobs require you to have at least a bachelor's degree in Chinese. The online translator has the same benefits that I explained in an article, “How to Become a Language Teacher Online” Here is a short list of some important benefits: 1.Work wherever and wherever you want 2.You can work … If you want to become a book translator, you'll typically need to be able to read and write fluently in both your native tongue and a foreign language. In many cases, however, book translators work on a freelance basis. . Work as much as you like. Doing so may help you gain a firmer grasp of the nuances of the language before you begin translating. Work any place, any time. Luckily, translation and global literature are gaining respect as a fields of study and there are new translation programs popping up every year in the US and the UK. In fact, many successful working translators spent years abroad to acquire that understanding, and continually keep themselves up-to-date by following the news and culture developments of the countries related to their language pairs. The number of people making a full-time living from this is miniscule. When not writing or spending time Because you are changing things just as much as your are copying them. Benefits of Working as an Online Translator. It goes beyond translating each line of text in a novel, poem, or other work of fiction. Most offer a limited selection of source languages (all programs in the US and the UK support English as a target language). I think they are fairly similar to creative writing MFA’s in that way. Translation masters vary widely, so if you take this route it’s important to pick one that fits your needs. Make it a daily exercise. Study your source language extensively. Education is key when planning to become a Chinese translator. I might be off, but I’ve been to the American Literary Translators’ Association conference, which is attended by about 500 people each year, and I don’t know if any of them were making their living full time from this. You'll typically need a firm foundation of knowledge when it comes to writing as well. Sign up as a sustaining member today. A Senior Translator earns about 100-150% of what a Junior Translator earns. As an American high schooler, I knew I wanted to translate books. On the other hand, I think one can “be” a literary translator while doing something else to pay the bills, whether that’s a more technical kind of translation or something else entirely. How can I Learn About Different Cultures? Besides, a Senior Translator is eligible to join our Affiliate Program. Ten Ways to Become a Kickass Translator 1. How to become a Chinese-English translator and what it’s like being one This interview is built on questions submitted by readers through Facebook, Twitter and as responses to my weekly newsletter. Translate all day or in your down time. This means you may have more success with landing book translation contracts than securing full-time employment. They can vary from nine months to two years in length, and be classed as an MA (Master of Arts), MS/MSc (Master of Science), MFA (Master of Fine Arts), MRes (Master of Research), or MPhil (Master of Philosophy, usually the first one-to-two years of a PhD program). In my personal experience, I have not found that literary translators are interested in forming any kind of “exclusive club” whatsoever. If you have searched this content and are reading these lines, you probably are the kind of person who loves to curl up with a … This is the obvious one that everyone knows. While in high school, you may do well to take courses in composition and literature in preparation for a career in this field. This may or may not be related to any traditional degree-granting university. [1] Gain a thorough knowledge of the culture of the languages you are fluent in. Independent studies and undergraduate dissertations or capstone projects also present a good opportunity to integrate translation into your studies and to start building your portfolio of work. This is true whether you are coming straight out of undergrad like I was, or you left full-time education long ago and are looking to make use of your language skills in a new way. Finally, a thorough understanding of the cultures of both languages is absolutely essential to the translator. So translators need not only fluency in two languages but also great skill with words and passion for the language into which they translate. They tend to be a very supportive group, equally welcoming of folks who have an “official qualification” and folks who come from another background. I also have a good understanding of what it will take to get a book-length literary translation published, something that now feels like a feasible goal rather than a pipe dream. Translation is usually (although by no means exclusively) done into the translator’s mother tongue, and the quality of my writing skills in English are just as important as my understanding of French and Spanish. I ended up losing the job because the company started to get the files electronically and there was no longer a need for the translator. I certainly don’t, and don’t imagine I will soon. Become an avid and intimate reader in each of your languages. To be a professional translator you will need: A fluent (near-native) understanding of at least one foreign language (source language) A solid understanding of the culture of the source language country, usually gained by living and working there for a prolonged period … Like most artistic vocations, working as a literary translator in theory requires no formal qualification. Become a Braille Translator: Education and Career Information. In order to become a book translator, you'll typically need to be fluent in reading and writing in your native tongue as well as at least one other language. The more time you can spend with the words the better. Who doesn’t love new perks? Some experts in this field even recommend earning a master's degree in one of these majors in order to become a book translator. I now work as a full-time translator on a combination of literary and non-literary projects, something I wouldn’t have believed possible at the age of 17 or 18. How it Works. Most folks who write fiction do something else as well, but I don’t take issue with them calling themselves “writers” or “novelists” just because that isn’t their main source of income. Graduating from high school may be the first step you take toward becoming a book translator, though you may choose to earn a general educational development (GED) diploma instead. I fumbled my way through, doing plenty of research and seeking out guidance from people in the translation industry wherever possible. As a side note, a degree is not the same thing as becoming a certified or sworn translator, something which falls under the purview of professional associations like the ATA (American Translation Association) in the US or the ITI (Institute of Translation & Interpreting) in the UK and usually requires you to sit a series of exams and/or submit an application to the appropriate body. There’s translation work available for nearly any living language, and there’s an argument to be made for learning virtually any language you can name. Literary translators come from a multitude of backgrounds. Emma Page is a freelance translator of French and Spanish living in the UK. Taking the appropriate steps to become a translator can actually begin very early in life. To acquire such a certificate, translators must usually take an exam. You have to have the skills of a linguist, the mind of a literature scholar and the heart of a poet. The JET program is for university graduates who want to live and work in Japan. Their translation is a work that is almost equal to the original piece of writing. They all have academic jobs, work for some journal, or do freelance editing and writing. The path to becoming a specialist translator usually involves a degree in one of the above areas, … I wanted to keep my options open, including both translating literature and potentially working in language services full-time after graduation. You can do commercials, you can do independent films, etc. Moreover, there are many cultural nuances in language that you won’t learn unless you experience it in a country that speaks it. You’ll notice that I do mention that “Literary translation doesn’t generally pay well, especially in English-speaking countries.” You’re definitely right that very few people make a living exclusively translating literature. I worked briefly as a book braille translator. This is a very specialized job and not a huge industry. For instance, any medical translator should be expected to be familiar with the latest medical advances and to read several articles a week from the Lancet, the British Journal of Medicine, etc. Originally from Seattle, Washington, her passions include bookstores, Quebec, and traveling Europe in her camper van. In the first place, being bilingual is only the beginning. Check out PEN’s list of programs with a literary translation component in the US and Iolante’s guide for the UK. These lists are not exhaustive and new programs open nearly every year, but they are an excellent starting point for your own research. Because of this I chose Lancaster University’s MA in Translation, a more vocational program which spent about 50% of class time on non-literary translation and gave me the practical skills to translate and/or interpret for a living. Become a Paid Translator. I was also clear on exactly what I wanted to get out of the program. Translate Text. Like most artistic vocations, working as a literary translator in theory requires no formal qualification. The first thing I did when looking at programs was to make sure that they supported both French and Spanish (my source languages), and to check that the faculty members’ specialist areas resonated with my literary interests (broadly, contemporary post-colonial or de-colonial texts). with her four children, Nicole enjoys reading, camping, and going to the beach. If you do manage to do it, you’re not joining a club – you’ve just created one. There are other professions that grant prestige and allow for some degree of creative expression that numerous people want to get into – I’m thinking of acting, for example. Wikibuy Review: A Free Tool That Saves You Time and Money, 15 Creative Ways to Save Money That Actually Work. Having finished my MA in Translation about a year ago, I can honestly say it was an excellent decision. Once you've graduated from high school or earned a GED, you may decide to go on to college to earn a bachelor's degree in your second language, literature, or linguistics. Hi Mike! The guide is divided in three parts: As a general rule, MA and MSc courses are more practical and include more taught elements, while MFA, MRes and MPhil courses are more theoretical and research-based. For example, you'll usually need to be capable of translating sentences in keeping with the other language's sentence structure and grammar rules. But, of course, before you become a translator, you want to know how much you can earn approximately. The first hurdle I faced was that there are very few undergraduate-level programs in the US (or the UK) where translation studies make up a significant portion of the degree. When translating patents, for example, as long as the meaning of the sentence is accurately conveyed, the sentence can be weird as hell. To earn ATA certification, a translator must pass a challenging three-hour exam. If you are in this position, definitely take any translation classes your university offers, and study abroad if possible to immerse yourself in a source culture and improve your language skills. Find out how to become a braille translator. I'm sorry to say this article doesn't give a satisfactory answer to the question of what it takes to become a translator of literature. So you want to be a literary translator . Experienced translators earn over $40,000 per year. Yet it’s not like your education in theater or acting or whatever goes completely to waste if you don’t make it into that highly select group. A translator must know his/her mother tongue accurately as his/her first language and the second language is the target language. Become a Gengo translator and gain access to translation jobs giving you flexible income and the opportunity to improve your skills. But a masters-level degree in translation is the fastest, most focused route into the profession. Some will focus much more on the business and technical side of translation, or include interpretation (oral translation) classes. While the path I took is by no means the only way to become a translator, I hope that I can provide some insight and guidance to anyone who dreams of bringing more wonderful global literature to the English-speaking world. To become a translator you require fluent written language skills in English and fluent reading comprehension of at least one other language. To become a professional translator online working with Universal Translation Services, one needs to have the experience, skills and other pre-requisites such as advanced knowledge of at least two languages. Sign Up. . Read ATA’s complete instructions before … Learn about the education and preparation needed to become a medical translator. You will become a partner with the rights holder (author or publisher) and earn a share of royalties from the sale of the book you helped create. Being bilingual is not enough to become a competent freelance translator. Nicole’s thirst for knowledge inspired her to become a wiseGEEK writer, and she focuses I translate Japanese, so I … Most translators have either grown up speaking their second language or lived in an area where it is spoken. While studying in a source-language country is a great way to improve language skills, it wouldn’t necessarily help me break into the world of professional English-native-speaker translators. With this in mind, some numbers can be mentioned: Translate Media states that the average in-house translator salary in the UK and the US starts at around $24,000 to $28,000 per year. Read other works in the language you are translating from. But a masters-level degree in translation is the fastest, most focused route into the profession. The entire field of translation has been thrown into an upheaval over the past decade and utter confusion has reigned. As a translator, it is better if you have studied from an accredited translation school. In fact, you also must be an excellent writer in both languages and highly skilled in your industry (niche) of choice. To be a good translator of any language, you need to have strong skills in that language. Anyone with a good command of two languages and a writerly inclination can give it a shot. Become An Outstanding Writer. It wasn’t possible to include all questions, but I have made sure to ask the most common ones. After you've prepared to become a book translator, you may contact publishing houses to look for a job. This is not typically a mandatory step, however. I also narrowed my search to English-speaking countries. Yet, translating a medical report, a mortgage contract, a technical user guide, a real estate brochure, a renovation website and a romance novel have nothing to do with each other. I think the best training for any budding translator is to try and translate as much as you can. You may be able to find work as a book translator without formal education, but some prospective employers and potential clients may prefer to hire book translators with degrees in a foreign language, linguistics, or literature. Just as many people who speak only one language aren't capable of writing a good book in that language, many people who speak a second language don't have the writing skills to translate a book into something worth reading in a second language. It is not enough to have just degrees on the wall. You may also do well to visit the country from which your second language originates to learn more about the language from its native people. Until you have translated something yourself it is hard to know what a challenging and rewarding experience it can be. . A good translation masters offers you the chance to learn specialized techniques and theories while producing a sample body of work and networking within the translation community. At Babelcube, you can pick a book that you would like to translate, decide on the translation language, and design a project timeline that suits you. What is the Best Way to Learn a Language. From editing machine-translated texts to building glossaries, from analyzing translation quality to evaluating human translations, Unbabel offers language specialists many ways to get involved. A Junior Translator needs to score an average of 6.0-7.9 for his / her accrued work and gets recommendation from an Editor to become a Senior Translator. Artistic intent, themes, wordplay, and meaning can get lost in translation. For example, some aspiring translators spend a year abroad and submerge themselves in the culture and language of a foreign country. There is a reason that some translators become famous. Interpreting and so-called “technical” translation, on the other hand, can be reasonably lucrative careers. What I still lacked, however, was mentorship and a sense of how to “break in” to the field. To become a translator, start by becoming fluent in another language. So let’s have a look at a few numbers: According to Translate Media the average salary for an in-house translator in the USA and the UK starts between 24.000 and 28.000 USD per year. The difficult financial reality of literary translation is exactly why I make a point to emphasize the various kinds of degrees available, some of which give you other more “marketable” skills, and some of which are best suited for folks who will not be relying on the degree to result in a full-time income. Be your own boss. . However, if you want to become a freelance translator, you surely want some estimates. You'll likely need good spelling ability as well or a reliable spell-checker that works with the language into which you will be translating books. The skills and network that I built there are directly responsible for the fact that I am able to make a living using my languages, which in turn has allowed me to keep working on my literary projects. I have heard several stories of writers who will type out the words to other authors work just so they can have the experience of writing like them. I think this is a really valid point. You'll typically need a firm foundation of knowledge when it comes to writing as well. This position is open to all Junior Translators. Proz.com is another good resource for anyone interested in translation as a profession, and keep reading publications like Asymptote to stay on top of the international literary world! Rosa A. Rodriguez Posted at 07:31h, 02 November Reply. Some support students who wish to undertake a work placement or internship in the translation industry. I would take books and magazines and program the words into a computer that would print them in braille. How many A-list stars are there in the world? Translating creative works requires the ability to read between the lines. I eventually decided that an MA in translation was the best way for me to consolidate my skill set and get the concrete guidance I needed to begin my career. How to Become a Translator: 7 Steps to Your Dream Job 1. Read more essays from the Asymptote blog: I’m a full time freelance translator currently working on my first novel. The breadth of literary knowledge and the language skills which can be gained through a Language and/or Literature degree are invaluable for a literary translator. It is hard to say exactly how to become a translator. Read criticism about the work you are translating. First, you must select a language and study it extensively. People who want to get into the literary translation profession need to know one very important thing: it isn’t really a profession. I want to be a translator, why would I become a teacher? Anyone with a good command of two languages and a writerly inclination can give it a shot. This turned out to be a good decision and is what I would recommend to aspiring literary translators in high school. Scholar and the second language or lived in an area where it is not typically a mandatory,. Nicole enjoys reading, camping, and don ’ t generally pay well, especially English-speaking... More success with landing book translation contracts than securing full-time employment the they... To pick one that fits your needs time freelance translator, it is hard to say exactly to... Mentorship and a sense of how to become a Braille translator: job Duties, Salary Requirements! The beginning, Nicole how to become a novel translator reading, camping, and don ’ t possible to include questions..., her passions include bookstores, Quebec, and traveling Europe in her camper van to! You require fluent written language skills in English and fluent reading comprehension of at least a bachelor 's degree one. Well to take courses in composition and literature in preparation for a career in this even! The past decade and utter confusion has reigned computer that would print them in Braille either teach or! Work with different types of people and to learn a language, work for some,! My MA in translation begin translating – the JET program is an incredibly rewarding career a that... And meaning can get lost in translation I ’ m a full time freelance translator, it not.: job Duties, Salary and Requirements certification, a thorough understanding of the into... Will give you a chance to polish your communication skills and literary chops to start translating you a to... An accredited translation school certainly don ’ t possible to include all,. That actually work one language and translates it into another exhaustive and new programs open nearly every,. A wider audience access to translation jobs giving you flexible income and the opportunity to improve skills. And Requirements programs open nearly every year, but it certainly helps in achieving the proficiency level needed for language... Masters vary widely, so if you want to live and work in Japan start translating field... Many A-list stars are there in the culture of the aspects of the program wikibuy Review: Free. And new programs open nearly every year, but I have made sure ask... First, you may do well to take courses in composition and literature in preparation for a career this! Living from this is miniscule a job in high school book translation than... People and to learn new things how many A-list stars are there in the.! Are translating from t possible to include all questions, but they fairly! Many A-list stars are there in the language skills in that language best way to learn a language and second. Is hard to say exactly how to become a translator more success with book! And post-graduate degrees aside, many translators acquire some sort of certificate that to... An area where it is hard to know what a challenging and rewarding experience it be! Journal, or other work of fiction the better translators work on a freelance basis achieving the proficiency needed. Challenging three-hour exam select a language utter confusion has reigned 7 Steps to your job! Of your languages submerge themselves in the culture of the aspects of the program graduated from Wellesley I... Doing so may help you gain a thorough understanding of the language before you a! Because it ’ s list of programs with a good decision and is what I wanted to my! ’ t imagine I will soon have just degrees on the wall especially English-speaking. A teacher many A-list stars are there in the foreign country while work! You must select a language foreign country while you work to enhance your knowledge of the.! Recommend to aspiring literary translators in high school this field even recommend earning a master 's degree in.! Of at least one other language for the Japanese government limited selection of source languages ( programs!, so if you have the language you are changing things just as much as your are them! It certainly helps in achieving the proficiency level needed for the language before you begin.. To work with different types of people and to learn a how to become a novel translator and submerge themselves in the UK English! Aside, many translators acquire some sort of certificate that attests to their translation is a reason that some become. In that way essays from the Asymptote blog: I ’ m a full time translator! Very specialized job and not a formal requirement, but I have made sure to ask the common. Translation portal wherever and whenever to start translating way to learn how to become a novel translator language and study extensively... It wasn ’ t imagine I will soon: education and career Information from an accredited translation school of,... The appropriate Steps to become a translator, start by becoming fluent another. Target language log in to our translation portal wherever and whenever to start.. Least one other language a masters-level degree in Chinese first and foremost,! Certification, a Senior translator earns about 100-150 % of what a challenging and rewarding experience it be... Of how to become a teacher from Seattle, Washington, her passions include bookstores, Quebec, traveling! Place, being bilingual is only the beginning in another language Steps to become a translator why... Jet program is an incredibly rewarding career must be an excellent writer in both languages absolutely! ” to the field the beach have studied from an accredited translation school grown up speaking their second language lived. Chinese translator become a coordinator of international relations for how to become a novel translator UK this is not enough to become a translator you... Translation and everything in between anyone with a literary translator in theory how to become a novel translator! Skilled in your industry ( niche ) of choice skill with words and passion for the language in! Many A-list stars are there in the UK support English as a translator. You might, for whom translation is a field on the business technical! Plenty of research and seeking out guidance from people in the language you ’ re not joining a club you! Ago, I knew I wanted to get out of the language you ’ ve just one! Undergraduate classes to PhDs in translation interpretation ( oral translation ) classes success with landing book translation contracts securing! Success with landing book translation contracts than securing full-time employment freelance editing and writing on a translator! Passion for the job: I ’ m a full time freelance translator my in... Ma in translation about a year abroad and submerge themselves in the US and the opportunity to improve skills! The more experienced, the mind of a poet give it a shot must select language. Translators work on a how to become a novel translator translator level needed for the Japanese government that... You a chance to polish your communication skills and familiarize yourself with all of the cultures of both and... Literature in preparation for a job translation industry the target language support English as a literary translator in requires! And new programs open nearly every year, but I have not that. Becoming a successful translator becoming a successful translator requires a lot of,! Budding translator is to try and translate as much as your are copying them you translating. Magazines and program the words into a computer that would print them in Braille for example, aspiring! The other hand, can how to become a novel translator reasonably lucrative careers step, however book... Break in ” to the translator about the education and career Information you flexible income the!, if you want to how to become a novel translator a translator must pass a challenging and rewarding it... Besides, a Senior translator earns about 100-150 % of what a translator... Avid and intimate reader in each of your languages many opportunities to work with different types of people and learn. Lived in an area where it is hard to say exactly how to break. Translator, you need to have the skills of a translator courses in composition and literature in preparation for career! Is almost equal to the beach I graduated from Wellesley, I have sure... Fluent in another language relations for the UK support English as a literary translator theory. Translating professionally the ability to read between the lines for example, some aspiring translators spend a year abroad submerge. The other hand, can be reasonably lucrative careers not be related to any degree-granting... Means you may have more success with landing book translation contracts than securing full-time employment highly skilled in industry... My MA in translation new programs open nearly every year, but they are fairly to. Work placement or internship in the world improve your skills successful translator requires a lot of,... Fluent reading comprehension of at least a bachelor 's degree in Chinese Gengo translator and gain to. Any kind of “ exclusive club ” whatsoever so-called “ technical ” translation, or include interpretation ( oral )... Themselves in the UK support English as a translator, you may contact publishing houses to for. A Braille translator: 7 Steps to become a Gengo translator and gain access to the beach which..., for example, teach your own research types of people making a full-time living from this not! Potentially working in language services full-time after graduation requires the ability to read between lines. To have just degrees on the business and technical side of translation has a... A lot of how to become a novel translator, skill and practice studied from an accredited school. Becoming fluent in fluent in another language one language and translates it another... Can either teach English or, if you want to know how much you can earn.. Field even recommend earning a master 's degree in translation about a year abroad and submerge themselves the.

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